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Apache Struts Framework Tutorial

The Apache Struts web framework is a free open-source solution for creating Java web applications using a Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture. In the MVC architecture, the Model represents the business or database code, the View represents the page design code, and the Controller represents the navigational code.


The Struts framework provides three key components:

1.    A "request" handler provided by the application developer that is mapped to a standard URI.

2.    A "response" handler that transfers control to another resource which completes the response.

3.    tag library that helps developers create interactive form-based applications with server pages.

Struts also works well with conventional REST applications and with nouveau technologies like SOAP and AJAX.

The most current release of Apache Struts 1 framework is Struts 1.3.10, and can be downloaded from The most current release of Apache Struts 2 framework is Struts 2.3.4, and can be downloaded from For reference information on Struts, visit